All, all missed assignments are to be send to my email: by Wednesday November 25 at midnight.

  1. Research Activity #1: Understanding the value of research: Let’s take the quick HRC Test and discuss the value of research. Please upload your score in word format or enter the score here in CANVAS after taking the test below. (Links to an external site.)

Have fun!

2. Research Article Critique

Please click at the link below to open the research article. Please answer the questions in the protocol below in a separate document to complete this assignment. Thank you!


  1. Is there a literature review? Is it related to the research question?
  2. Does the author provides a rationale for why he or she is conducting the study? *Purpose of the study.
  3. What is the research study’s question or hypothesis or both?
  4. Does the author provide a detailed research design explaining how the study was conducted, which kind of study it is (qualitative or quantitative), number of subjects involved, sampling technique, statistical or qualitative method of data analysis used, and margin of error if the study is quantitative? How did the author came up with the themes if qualitative? Thematic Analysis?  Content Analysis?
  5. Does the author answers the study’s research question? Did he or she answer the question in a comprehensive way, in your opinion?
  6. Does the author present (either qualitative or quantitative data) when answering the research question?     
  7. Is there a conclusion and recommendation section in the paper? What was it?

Explain, in a paragraph or so, what was this study about and what the researcher found.

Good Luck!

3. Research Activity #2

Please go to the website listed below, take the test and upload the results here to canvas in a word document. Taking surveys (or inventories) is a part of research! *There is no right or wrong about Loci of Control.

4. Final Exam

  1. What is an attempt to discover something?

      A. Investigations 

      B. Methodologies 

      C. Research 

      D. Both A & B

  1. Content analysis reliability may be questioned because there is no sampling frame and the content of existing sites is constantly changing.  T/F

3. Modern content analysis developed from research by the military in World War III. 


4. Content analysis is popular with mass media researchers because it is an efficient way to investigate the content of the media. T/F 

5. Summary statistics make data more manageable by measuring two basic tendencies of distributions: 1) central tendency; and 2) dispersion (variability). T/F

6. Before any study is conducted, an __________ clearance is required.

       A. IRB  

       B. MIT

       C. PSU 

       D. LCA

7. Unethical behaviors may have an adverse effect on research participants. T/F

8. Sampling and census are the same thing. T/F

9. Which of the following isn’t an example of research? 

       A. Polls 

       B. PR Campaigns

       C. Student Reports  

       D. None of The Above 

10. Method of tenacity is a way of learning. T/F 

11. Science is systematic and ________________. 

       A. Qualitative  

       B. Quantitative 

       C. Cumulative 

       D. None of the above 

12. Content analysis is useful for: 1) describing communication content; 2) testing hypotheses of message characteristics; 3) comparing media content to the “real world;” 4) assessing the image of particular groups in society; 5) establishing a starting point for studies of media effects; and 6) framing analysis. T/F

13. Sample distribution is the distribution of some characteristic measured on an individual or other unit of analysis that was NOT part of a sample. T/F

14. Why is research valuable? Because…

       A. Advances Society  

       B. Reduces Error 

       C. Advances The Field of Communication 

       D. All of the above 

15. Using range, variance, and standard deviation, allows researchers to understand the characteristics of the data. T/F

16. This philosophy is highly structured, uses large samples and measurement is quantitative…

       A. Relativism  

       B. Positivism 

       C. Pragmatism 

       D. Interpretivism   

17. As a rule, most published content analyses report a minimum reliability coefficient of about 90% or above when using Holsti’s formula, and about .65 or above when using pi or alpha. T/F

18. Most statistical procedures are based on the assumption that the data aren’t normally distributed. T/F

19. A ________________ is to be falsifiable.

       A. Law 

       B. Fact  

       C. Theory

       D. None Of The Above  

20. After selecting a subsample (usually 130%-250%) from the population, researchers should measure the degree of agreement among coders in terms of Holsti’s percentage of agreement, Scott pi, or Cohen’s kappa. T/F

21. Data transformation can be possible by multiplying or dividing each score by a certain number, or taking the square root or log of the scores. T/F

22. ________________ is a term that expresses an abstract idea formed by generalizing from particulars.
       A. Concept

       B. Construct 

       C. Variable 

       D. Theory   

23. In content analysis, reliability and validity checks are very important before researchers begin the main data collection phase of their project. T/F

24. What are the four levels of measurement?

       A. IGCV

       B. ABCD

       C. MOIT

       D. NOIR

25. Deontological is ____________________.

       A. Rule based

       B. Hierarchical

       C. Solvent

       D. Both B & C

26. Utilitarianism is a type of ________________.

    A. Relativism

      B. Humanism

      C. Teological/Balancing Theories

      D. Categorical Imperatives